Monday, July 13, 2020

How Is Reiki Used and Is It for Real

How Is Reiki Used and Is It for Real Spirituality Print How Reiki Is Used for Treatment By Naveed Saleh, MD, MS twitter linkedin Naveed Saleh, MD, MS, is a medical writer and editor covering new treatments and trending health news. Learn about our editorial policy Naveed Saleh, MD, MS Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Richard Fogoros, MD on April 03, 2015 Richard N. Fogoros, MD, is a retired professor of medicine and board-certified internal medicine physician and cardiologist. He is Verywells Senior Medical Advisor. Learn about our Medical Review Board Richard Fogoros, MD Updated on January 02, 2020 karelnoppe/Getty Images More in Self-Improvement Spirituality Happiness Meditation Stress Management Holistic Health Inspiration Brain Health Technology Relationships View All At any given moment, you can search in any major medical database and find (at least) 1000 times more information on conventional medicine than complementary alternative medicine. Nevertheless, all types of complementary medicine are practiced regularly throughout the world. Even in the United States, a pillar of Western thought and medicine, according to 2007 National Health Survey, 38 percent of Americans engaged in mind-medicine, energy medicine, massage, naturopathic medicine, and countless other forms of complementary alternative medicine. What Is Reiki? Reiki is the ritualized medical practice of laying hands. Albeit, a lot more low-key than the stereotypical evangelical practice of laying hands, Reiki nevertheless involves the transfer of energy with the practitioner as a conduit. Purportedly, this universal energy or ki has healing effects. During a Reiki session, a holistic healer will focus on unrestricted breathing and apply hand movements to your fully clothed body in a relaxed environment.  Reiki has a strong following among many people who practice integrative medicine. It is usually used to treat stress. We know little about Reiki and other types of complementary alternative medicine, yet so many people enjoy and benefit from it. Its difficult to tell somebodyâ€"especially an adherentâ€"that Reiki, a form of energy medicine, is fake. Furthermore, if you are a Reiki practitioner, then more power to you; it works in some way for you. The mind-body connection is infrangible and strong. Is There Any Research? The current studies out there on Reiki are mostly low-quality, low power, and riddled with bias.  Furthermore, its difficult to determine how to measure the effects of Reiki; researchers have looked at depression, satisfaction, well-being, anxiety, and more. In academic reviews on Reiki, some researchers realize that although its evident that we have no evidence that Reiki works, its impossible to rule in the null hypothesis and simply conclude that Reiki does nothing more than sham treatment. However, its unclear how to exactly rectify this problemâ€"how to design a study that actually tests the very personal experience and benefit of another person laying hands on you. The Healing Powers of Touch and Spirituality We do know that spirituality means a lot to many people who are sick. Patient spirituality and support improve  health outcomes including cardiovascular outcomes. Furthermore, the healing power of touch is an empathetic and personal interaction with numerous tangible health benefits. Specifically, a growing amount of research on osteopathic manipulation treatment links touch with healing. Mechanistically, it figures that Reiki and many other types of touch therapy could mediate the release of neurotransmitters like reward-processing dopamine and oxytocin. Ultimately, if you believe that Reiki works, and you want and can afford to make Reiki (or any other safe complementary alternative medicine practice) a part of your life, then you should. Even skeptics of such intervention would have trouble denying that, at the very least, Reiki confers the placebo effect in those who believe. Final Thoughts While doing research for this article, I noticed that a 2013 Cochrane review on touch therapy had been conspicuously withdrawn by the publisher. At first, this decision made me suspect, but after learning more about Reiki, I am no longer rankled by this discovery. Although we definitely need more research on the subject, with the little low-quality research that we do have on Reiki, maybe an overarching meta-analysis is premature. Were still at a point when it may be good to look at case studies and retrospective accounts in order to flesh out future research questions and come up with hypotheses that might have legs. Can Tibetan Singing Bowls Help Lessen Stress?

Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Ethical Theories Which Teachers Should Be Aware Of When...

There are two major ethical theories which teachers should be aware of when determining the course of action regarding discipline, and other student affairs. There is the consequentialist theory, and the non-consequentialist. These ethical theories have been put to the test in the case study involving Ms. Jones (the teacher), Johnnie (the student) and, Mr. Pugnacious (Johnnie’s father). In the scenario described, Ms. Jones is having an ethical dilemma. She has witnessed Johnnie starting a fight with his classmates, and wishes to speak to his father regarding his behaviour. Mr. Pugnacious arrives to the meeting, belt in hand, and states his desire to â€Å"teach that brat to fight in school† while smelling of alcohol. To keep Johnnie from being hurt, Ms. Jones lies to Johnnie’s father and says it was not his son who started the fight and that he should not be punished. A teacher coming from a consequentialist standpoint is more likely to see the lie told by Ms. Jo nes as acceptable, because she was keeping her student out of harm’s way. A teacher coming from a non-consequentialist standpoint is more likely to believe the opposite, that lying to a parent is unacceptable and should be avoided. In this essay, I will analyze both the positive and negative effects of assuming each perspective, and finally will provide my own opinion about how the case should have been handled. A consequentialist teacher would have reacted the same way Ms. Jones did in this situation. Ms. JonesShow MoreRelatedThe Values Of The Christian Tradition9036 Words   |  37 Pagesin the true spirit of a liberal arts education, the undergraduate education program will encompass all dimensions of the human being, which are in reality inseparable. 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They supported me every time that I need help of somebody. They mold me how to an effective, creative, resourceful, enthusiastic, friendly, lovable, equipped and professional teacher. They created a lot of changes in terms of my mindset of teaching. Mrs. Glecida Aliado and Mr. Elwin Fernandez, as my cooperating teacher in my in- campus duty. Mr. Norvin M. Luisen, as my cooperating in my off- campus. I am very blessed to know you personally and to be with you for almost two months. To my co- internsRead MoreDefinition of Adolescent Development14194 Words   |  57 Pagesdevelopment in the life of an individual. It is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood and is characterized by spurts of physical, mental, emotional and social development. WHO considers adolescence to be the period between 10-19 years of age, which generally encompasses the time from the onset of puberty of the full legal age. Information: During adolescence, children develop the ability to: †¢ Understand abstract ideas, such as higher math concepts, and develop moral philosophies, includingRead MoreDefinition of Adolescent Development14200 Words   |  57 Pagesdevelopment in the life of an individual. It is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood and is characterized by spurts of physical, mental, emotional and social development. WHO considers adolescence to be the period between 10-19 years of age, which generally encompasses the time from the onset of puberty of the full legal age. Information: During adolescence, children develop the ability to: †¢ Understand abstract ideas, such as higher math concepts, and develop moral philosophies, includingRead MoreSharon Construction7271 Words   |  30 PagesStudent Handbook BADM 200W~Analysis of Business Issues A Writing in the Disciplines (WID) Course The George Washington University School of Business Fall, 2010 Warren Sharp, PhD Visiting Professor, School of Business Table of Contents Page Introduction 2 Format of the Course 3 Learning Objectives 4 Methods of Communication 4 Critical Thinking 5 Revision and Feedback (Peer Review) 5 Research and Analysis 6 Career Management Strategy 6 Business Terminology 7 Read MoreIntroduction to Large Scale Organizations18988 Words   |  76 Pagesyears, this has been the case where upon retiring or dismal million of dollars are paid-out even if the executives actions lead to damages/complications Importing overseas raw materials and goods Criticism as it damages local industries *The task of management is to achieve the objectives of an organisation, this is done through strategies. A strategy is simply a course of action aimed at achieving organisational objectives Function-based Organisation structure General Manager (Executive) OperationsRead MoreTracing Theoretical Approaches to Crime and Social Control: from Functionalism to Postmodernism16559 Words   |  67 Pagesassistance is appreciated more than words can express; to Dr. Jim Brittain for your influential insight into Karl Marx and the capitalistic social order; thank you to my second thesis supervisor, Dr. Anthony Thomson, for your unwavering patience, which afforded me a space of peace and tranquility that guided me through the thesis process; and finally, to my first thesis supervisor, Dr. Heather A. Kitchin. You were, without a doubt, the one who inspired me to write this thesis. We have come toRead MoreThe Benefits of Progress Monitoring and Assessment on Pupil Performance16691 Words   |  67 PagesBenchmarking 14 2.2.2 Determining the Goal 14 2.2.3 Data collection 15 2.2.4 Data representation 16 2.2.5 Evaluation of data 16 2.2.6 Possible instructional adjustments 16 2.2.7 Communicating with parents 17 2.3 Comparing pupil performance 17 2.3.1 Comparing the progress of a pupil 17 2.3.2 Flow chart for progressive monitoring of a specific pupil 19 2.4 Purposes of Progress monitoring and assessment 20 2.4.1 What a progress monitoring and assessment should do 20 2.6 DisadvantagesRead MoreDeveloping Effective Research Proposals49428 Words   |  198 Pagesperspective behind the research 4.2 The role of theory 4.2.1 Description versus explanation 4.2.2 Theory verification versus theory generation 4.3 Pre-structured versus unfolding 4.4 The relevant literature 4.5 Quantitative, qualitative or both? 4.6 Review concepts and questions Notes 5 Methods 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Quantitative data, qualitative data, or both? 5.3 Design 5.3.1 Strategy 5.3.2 Framework 5.3.3 Sample 5.3.4 Data collection (instruments, procedures, ethical issues) 5.3.5 Data analysis 5.4 The question

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Unconstitutionality of Banning Gay Marriage Essay

Banning gay marriage across the United States is directly against the constitution and violates the unalienable right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. The scumbags in the government however, make almost impossible to pass these laws for homosexual individuals. A man with reason like Aristotle for example, believes that the main duty of humans is to the use the ability of reason and consciousness in the pursuit of the ultimate life good or happiness. Happiness is what we strive for, even homosexual couples. This whole topic can be related to one question I find particularly interesting and correlates to this exact discussion. How is the message of gay marriage related to the attainment of happiness? Well it’s simple really†¦show more content†¦In an older era before the bible, marriage could be seen as a way to as trading livestock for a woman or combining two families into one. Allowing gay marriage into our lives is nothing but a privilege for us as so ciety so that our minds can evolve from being intolerant of others and their beliefs. The only thing we receive as a society by not allowing gay marriage is a step backwards in the global scale. I don’t know if the anti-gay community knows this but, in the United States we have this thing called the constitution and the constitution clearly protects the rights of liberty, freedom, and equality of all, even those in the gay community. It is clearly unconstitutional to deny an individual a chance of happiness that would not affect society at all because of the color of their skin, religious belief, or sexual preference. Denying same-sex couples of marriage is like denying Christians of going to church, it’s is unethical, demoralizing, and completely unconstitutional. Just because someone does not agree with ones belief doesnt mean you have the right to take away his constitutional right to be happy. Their way of life does not affect anthers household at all, unless of co urse they’re close minded idiots. We might as well not have a constitution if some believe it should be one way and not the other. We all have rights and we willShow MoreRelatedPolitical Issues of Same-Sex Marriage Essay3061 Words   |  13 Pagesof Same-Sex Marriage The political aspects of whether same-sex couples should be allowed to federal and government recognized marriages are a very complex issue. There are basically two sides to the political argument of whether same-sex couples should be allowed to marry. On one side are the liberals who feel that marriage is a civil right that should be denied based on the basis of a persons sexual orientation. On the other side you have conservatives who feel that marriage is an institution

Report from an Interview with a Muslim-American Woman Free Essays

Oftentimes, personal narratives can become the grounding point for theoretical research. Experiences reflect the social tendencies of an individual or a community. Here social tendencies deal about the overall capacity of an individual or group to adapt to the social environment. We will write a custom essay sample on Report from an Interview with a Muslim-American Woman or any similar topic only for you Order Now It also includes the ability to maintain beliefs (or ideologies) and protect personal or group aspirations. Thus, a thorough study of social tendencies may provide the researcher knowledge about the nature of a given individual or community. Although the individual is an entity by itself; that is, it have an existence independent of a given group, the cultural values of such an individual usually reflect the cultural values of the community he/she originated. Thus, it can be said that personal values are often influenced by collective values. The tendency of an individual to move in certain manners is in part influenced by his/her capacity to incorporate societal values and practices. Thus, inference becomes a tool for extracting genuine data. Although uncertainties may be present (as to the reliability of the data procured), we may also assume that such uncertainties were borne out of pre-judged propositions. Remember that in the real world, propositions have no truth values unless tested by empirical research. In my case, I chose to study Muslim American communities in order to examine the conditions of this particular ethnic group in the United States. I really want to examine the specific problems, aspirations, social and economic conditions of this group of people. Rather than providing a lengthy description of the chosen community, I chose to interview an individual from that community. My best choice for the interview was an 80-year old woman who called himself Tiger Lily and usually wore huge, flamboyant hats every day. She often danced around the senior center with a wooden marionette from the center’s thrift shop just for the laughs she got. For a stranger, she may be labeled a crazy old lady (an eccentric individual who wants all the attention of people focused to her), but for the community (Muslim-American) she was the joy of the community. Her cheerfulness often got into the lives of every person in the community. Certainly, this person would be the most viable person for an interview. The range of data I could procure from her is very big. Thus, I began constructing an interview outline which would be used in the interview. I came into the house of the old lady and asked her permission for an interview. She asked me the purpose of the interview. I told her that the interview was part of the course requirements. Added to that, the interview would serve as the parting point for describing Muslim-American communities (in the United States). She told me to come back to the next day. She promised that she would prepare a delicious launch for both of us. I came back to the house of Tiger Lily. I got a little nervous and excited. I felt a little disoriented because I might offend the old lady from the questions that I would be asking in the interview. â€Å"The bitter pill is necessary† was the thought running in my mind. So when the old lady asked me to sit down, I willingly obeyed. For Muslim-Americans, respect for individual dignity is one of the greatest virtues. I thanked the old lady for approving the interview. She said that it was her duty to share her knowledge of the community to students like me. What she did not know that the interview was not about the community per se. It was about her in relation to the community. Her personal narrative would serve as the grounding point for a deeper analysis of her community. I did not show any sign of faltering. For me, an interview is not just a question and answer procedure. It is the blood life of a qualitative research. Without further ad due, I began the interview. The first part of the interview dealt with the social life of Tiger Lily. Here are some transcripts of the interview: Question: People usually call you Tiger Lily. What does Tiger Lily stands for? Are they connected with your personal attributes? Tiger Lily: I really do not know why people call me Tiger Lily. Probably because most of the people in the community perceive me as a person who could get along with everybody. Personally, I view myself as a strong woman who possesses the qualities of a fine lady. Well, that’s Tiger and Lily for sure. Question: Do you consider yourself a liberated woman; that is, a modern woman? Tiger Lily: I don’t know if I can classify myself as a modern woman. There are some things in this country I find really intriguing. There are also some things I find fine. However, I am generally conservative in worldview. Family life, the community, and of course my personal views are the finest things in life. Maybe, that’s a conservative outlook. Question: Does your religion (Islam) affect your way of life, your approach to people? Tiger Lily: There is so much in my religion that affects (sic) my way of life. In our community, everybody is expecting from everybody. Solidarity is the most cherished values for Muslims like us. One should not be detached from the community. Doing so, would give one a headache. Islam is a way of life. It is life connected and governed by the laws of Allah, the One-God. In any case, I am bound by my religion to stick to the beliefs of my community. There is no alternative but obedience. Living outside the community for a Muslim is like living in a dark cave. You have the impression that you are different. Question: Are you aware that people perceive you as different? Tiger Lily: That’s their view. I find interacting with people a lot beneficial than isolating myself in my house. For us Muslims, interaction is the key to a fulfilling life. As what I have (sic) earlier, there is no alternative. Maybe, my way of interacting with other people is different. The purpose is the same though. The second part dealt with Tiger Lily’s perception of the community she belongs (and some of the problem the community encounter).   Here are some transcripts of the interview. Question: What is your perception of your community? Tiger Lily: One, happy big family. We usually celebrate birthdays and holidays with the members of the community. Even though those nasty white policemen always suspect one of our fellows in various crimes, we console each other. That’s one way of showing respect and dignity to our fellows. Question: What are some of the problems your community is currently facing? Tiger Lily: Maybe unemployment is the most pervasive problem in our community. Most of the young adults here are facing the difficulty of finding jobs because they are Muslims. After the 9/11 attack, many of the companies here are afraid of hiring Muslims even though they are also American citizens. I am really saddened by this instance. We also find it very difficult to interact with other people outside our community. Once they know that you are a Muslim, they turn their backs and refuse further correspondence. It’s really hard for us. What we can derive from this interview can be summed up in the following statements. Tiger Lily is a conservative folk who clings to the values of her community. The problems of the community are reflected on her personal narrative. She shows magnanimity and respect for the community because she believes in the efficacy of her religion (who greatly influences her life). Work Cited Interview with Tiger Lily (transcript). (2007). Conducted on 31 October 2007 with the consent of the interviewee.    How to cite Report from an Interview with a Muslim-American Woman, Essay examples

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Key Highlights of the Human Career

The development of mankind is more than simply a history for the modern society. These are the lessons that people have learned, the successes that they have achieved, the failures that they have suffered and the progress that we have made from Homo Erectus to Homo Sapiens Sapiens – the level of development that cannot be compared to any existing forms of life.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Key Highlights of the Human Career specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thus, it is very important to remember the stages that the mankind has passed on its way to perfection. Each of those stages is marked somehow in the archeologists’ and scientists’ mind, and each of those stages can be represented by a certain artifact that can demonstrate the inventions that our ancestors made and the progress that they achieved. The treasure that the museum beholds is worth more than a gold mine, for this is the knowle dge that people have been collecting for centuries and thousands of years. Within these walls one can see the rise and fall of different civilizations, trace people learning to make weapons and creating the basis for the modern understanding of society. Here, the most significant artifacts have been selected to show the way that people have been going to achieve the present stage of development. The numerous artifacts will tell how important it is not to forget the old knowledge that the people of the past possessed. The artifacts have been arranged in a specific order for people to get the grip on the subject better and to have the possibility to see the numerous artifacts interconnected as they are, floating from one epoch into another. The artifacts have been placed in separate small cases for the visitors to have a better view on all of the elements grouped according to the sphere that they represent. The first case beholds the artifacts of people’s weapons, the second ha s scripts, and the third represents the sculptures that have been created in the ancient times. Hoping that the visitors will find the exhibition most interesting and cognitive, I would like top pass to the exhibits themselves.Advertising Looking for essay on anthropology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One of the most impressive historic discoveries was the one of the Olduwan culture. The development of these people who were living in the times old as the hills was truly incredible. In the epoch of the Stone Age, the industry was developing at a very slack pace. The people who speeded it up somehow were the Oldowans. The ancient tribe managed to create the tools that helped them in their routine work and was used from 2.6 to 1.7 million years ago! However, that did have a negative effect of its own, with the people who used the invention of the previous centuries did not need to improve anything and thus did not feel the urg e to develop their skills in creating instruments for their work. That is what lies on the one hand, but on the other the historians see the Oldowan as the people that overran the epoch, leaving their heirs far behind. One could easily guess that the Oldowan civilization was born in Tanzania, the heart of Africa – since Africa is considered by a number of scientists as the cradle of the mankind. Of course, the connection between the Oldowan tools and the modern technology is rather vague, yet there is no doubt that the invention of the first weapon can be considered a starting point in human’s development. However, some scientists tend to argue against the importance of the Oldowan tools invention: How sure can we be that the Oldowan tools are in fact manufactured tools? This is not a very easy judgment to make, since the artifacts identified as tools consist simply of small pieces of rocks that are sharpened on one side. Could they not have been â€Å"found toolsâ₠¬ ? (Donald 111)Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Key Highlights of the Human Career specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The instruments that they created were used for the prior goal, which was hunting. Although the Oldowan tools are considered the most primitive form of instruments that have ever appeared in the course of history, their importance stands beyond any doubts. If people had not started making steps towards the creation of the simplest tools and instruments, the modern civilization would have never achieved the present stage of development. After all, the great things begin with very small steps. The next issue in discussion will be the exhibit named Achaeulian Hand Axe. This invention is also considered to belong to the epoch of the Stone Age. Discovered in the region of Hoxne (Suffolk), the tools that the scientists found and considered the evidence of the people development in the Stone Age, these instruments signify the ancient people moving to Europe from the plentiful hot Africa. They created the tools that might help them to accommodate to the new environment and that was more suitable for the needs that they had in the age when they were changing the habitat. Chronologically, this event belongs to the times of the Lower Paleolithic era and signify that the ancient people have finally began to improve the tools, adjusting them so that they could be sharper, and that they could be easier to carry. The handle that the axe has shows clearly that this was a step forward in comparison to the sharp stone that was carried in hand and could not be a serious weapon in the fight with an animal. Found in India (Chandra 46), these weapons made the archaeologists understand that the Stone Age had been far more developed than it was supposed before. Like the previous exhibit, it has very distant relations with the modern weapons, yet it is a specimen of the ancient weapons and martial arts that has to be preserved.Advertising Looking for essay on anthropology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The impact that this invention has had on the modern technology and human behavior is huge, yet rather distant in time. The next exhibit that is going to be of a great interest to those interested in the secrets of the ancient times is the drawing found in the Lascaux Cave in France. It is a well-known fact that the ancient people were trying to depict the events of their everyday life, as well as the most significant occasions, or what was considered significant in the prehistoric era. The cave of Laxcaus beholds the treasures far more valuable than the Flint’s cave. The artists were called the Magdalenians, who lived about 17,000 years from now. This was the epoch of the ice age, and the drawings that are depicted on the walls of the cave are called correspondingly the Ice Art. (Burnham 6). The pictures that the ancient people drew on the walls of their dwellings were showing various scenes, starting from hunting to the pictures of animals or people alone, or the signs that the people were using at that times. Of course, this cannot be posed as art from the modern point of view, and it was hardly the art for the sake of art – it could be more reasonable to suggest that the drawings were supposed to express the ideas that were prior to the people of the Stone Age era. These drawings can be subdivided into three groups, which are the images of animals, the images of people and the images of uncertain character that were supposed to signify something for the dwellers of the cave. Among the images of the animals, the most numerous are the drawings of equine. Since it was the main object for the hunt of the ancient people, they drew it as one of the most important elements of their existence. It is rather doubtful that the drawings found in the Lascaux cave could be considered as the beginning of the art era, but they still mean that the mankind started to use visual images to point at a certain subject or express an idea. This is a very important s tep in the development of the mankind. As people went on in their cultural progress and started searching for the new methods of finding food and hunting, they discovered fast that one of the ways to sustain their lives was to resort to eating the goods that they could grow themselves. Basically, it meant the beginning of the agricultural era and mean that people have achieved another stage of development. The weapons that they created were not aimed only at hunting, or killing anymore. People started to make the weapons that helped them to create an agricultural society. Of course, the process went long and with big pauses. But the first thing that showed the ancient people’s potential for the further mental growth was the fact that they began creating such instruments as sickles and microliths. Although nowadays sickle is rather a symbol of the bygone times and the lack of progress, in the Mesolithic culture, it was a major breakthrough. With all the reasons for the further progress, people started making the weapons that could help them grow the seeds and somehow gather the harvest. It is a clear-cut case of the fats development that leads from one invention to another. Since people realized that they needed to control the growth of the plants that they use as food, they necessarily had to come to the agricultural way of living. It must be also born in mind that a sickle was used even in the modern times, though it has been modified greatly. â€Å"The Natufian sites and Zawi Chemi had sickles (or at least sickle blades) and microliths; these were not found at Ganj-Dareh,† Ucko (363) says. Well, that only proves the fact that people cannot develop at the same pace. Some of them need more time than the others. The same goes for the cultures, perhaps. The invention has modified the modern human behavior, switching it to the agricultural society. The Natufian civilization is also known for its burial traditions. The proto-Neolithic cemetery that w as found in Shanidar cave is a sufficient proof for this. It must be well remembered that the discovery of the cemetery not only helped to restore the gaps in the information about the culture that left almost no traces in the history of the world, but also to obtain the missing information about the environment that the se people lived in, their traditions, customs and most known ceremonies: A variety of cultural materials were recovered from the cemetery fill. These items were found in all excavated portions of the cemetery, in squares both with and without stone features, but not equally distributed around the cemetery. (Solecki 64) The objects of the everyday life that were discovered there could be subdivided into two groups, the bone items and the stone ones. This is the evidence of the fact that the new age was coming up and that people were starting to use another materials in creating the weapons and tools for their use. Although the discovery was dating back to 12000 BC, i t still meant for the modern art and the modern human behavior a lot, because the objects of everyday life showed that the basis for home as a shelter was created. The ancient people must have been too tired of the nomadic life and decided to settle. One could claim that these weapons show that the new generation left the previous ones far behind. Indeed, the tools that the scientists found on the burial site were completely different from what they used to observe before. The variety of the stone tools that people had by that time was amazing. The ancient people already had smaller instruments, and they differed in form and sphere of their use. Thus, there were small pecked tools and ground stone tools. It is also important that they were used as decoration as well – among those were beads, pendants and small shaped stones which were the figures of people and people’s faces. The artfully done work made it quite clear that the new tools were created not only for the sa ke of hunting and working, but also because it bore a certain sense and some ideas that the people had. This was close to the pictures on the walls of the Lascaux cave, with their entertaining and magical element. The most important discovery in the cemetery was the plain and decorated slate objects. The clue about the significance of these objects was that they were manufactured in a very specific way: The items described were made of specifically selected raw material, a metamorphic slatelike stone. At least two distinct types of objects were made from this raw material: small decorated pieces elongated shaped tools. (Solecki 68) This discovery could lead to some more clues about the habits and the customs of the bygone civilization. A very unusual artifact, the next exhibit represents the culture that existed in the place where now Turkey resides. One of the most significant and beautiful elements of the ancient art, the frescoes that have been created in the place of Chatal Ho yuk, are the evidence of the fact that the civilization of the 6,500 BC era was no less progressive than the modern world. The beauty of the frescoes captures the visitors’ attention at once. It seems impossible that this could have been created by the people who did not have the tools, the instruments and the whole wide range of equipment that the modern people have. The modern technology must have been inspired by the tools and equipment of Chatal Hoyuk. The people of the ancient Turkey must have decided to create something that the descendants would worship and appreciate. Unfortunately, the area has been subjected to the multiple forgeries, and even now one can trace the remaining of the frescoes that were viewed as the real ones. (Muscarella 141). However, the modern scientists have made it possible for the visitors to enjoy the unique objects of the ancient culture without fearing that they would be fooled – the newest technologies have made it possible to verify each object’s authenticity and genuineness. The beauty of the ancient art will not leave a single visitor disappointed, so the gallery is really worth their while. The time has come to talk about the artifacts that represent the written evidence of the ancient cultures’ existence. Indeed, the Stone Age and the age of people mastering the art of hunting and searching for provision is of utter importance, but lots of people are still getting more curious as the conversation is getting closer to the issues of cultural life. What is being talked now is the first written evidence of the civilization existed. The gift of the written word is one of those that can draw the line between a man and a human. This is where the animal part of a man borders with the spiritual qualities, and where one can see the difference between living a wild and a cultural life. In spite of the fact that the first people to introduce the written evidence of their existence were far from being cal led the ones of highly developed cultural life, they still were more civilized than the previous culture. This could be explained by the fact that people were flocking into what would be later on called society and make the stem fro the mankind to cling to. The Cuneiform Tablet was the first written evidence of a man’s existence. Homo Sapience came to reign on the pre-historic Earth. That happened around 30th Century BC, which was not that far from the beginning of our times. The people were much more intellectual than it could be anticipated – and, it fact, they had already established their own culture that was getting closer to the modern concept of a cultural life. The modern art owes much ot this artifact, for it was the script with which the era of writing began. The people of the past must have been willing to leave a written evidence of their existence for the descendants of theirs. The progress was impressive, since there was not so much time that has passed. It could have taken several epochs more, but the Providence decided that this was the right time for people to introduce their own written culture. Of course, that could happen only in the most developed state that existed in those times in the entire world, which was Sumer. The people of Sumer had very promising culture and were practically the first ones to make the culture saturated with literature and with the art that resembled the ideas of the modern art. They were overrunning the epoch just like their prehistoric ancestors had been once, and this was the evidence that the pace of the progress was constantly growing. The new civilization added to the magnificence of the mankind. It was the first to establish the new stage in its history. It is curious that the Cuneiform Tablets appeared as the first script to introduce the alphabet and the ways to out the speech into a written form, but later on it was developed into cursive (Van de Mieroop 10), which signifies that writing wa s perceived by the people with gratitude and was used as the means to express their own ideas and concepts with great pleasure, quite intensively and eagerly. Of course, that was not the first attempt to exercise the writing genre in the history of the mankind, but that was one of the most successful tries, and the scale that it was growing at was impressive. However fast the civilization might develop, if it does not have a written art of its own, or at least a written document – a few words, in fact, would be enough – to prove its existence, it would be nothing – a naught – for the historians of the modern world. Sumer people introduced their Cuneiform Tablets, and it was more than sufficient to prove that they achieved the level of development that the other civilizations failed to. The results of the researches were held by archeologists showed that the Sumers were more than advanced for the time that they were living in. The shape that the first cune iform signs took were mostly â€Å"straight lines, with a broader head where the, now blunt, stylus was pressed into the clay, which led to the wedge-shaped look. In later period when instructions were carved on stone, these wedges were imitated by the stone-cutters, and they have become characteristic of the writing system. (Mieroop 10) The fact that the Sumers pioneered in the numerous areas that were further on developed into numerous branches of science and arts by the modern civilization proves that they had much more developed culture than the rest of the civilizations veer existed before. The so-called Warka Vase, or the Uruk Vase, that was created by the ancient craftsmen. The time that the creators showed the result of their fruitful work to the rest of the work cannot be defined precisely, but it is known now that the vase was created around 3,200 – 3000 BC. Unfortunately, like most of the exhibits, it has not been preserved untouched, and in present days it looks much like a wreck of a vase to those who know nothing about its amazing story, but for those aware of the great civilization that created it, the vase is the most precious object that can be found in the museum. With regard to the ancient masters, it can be said that their work is worth being called a masterpiece, with all the refined lines and curves. The pictures on its sides are performed artfully and with great sense for beauty. One cannot help admiring the beautiful artwork. The tree registers of carving – the tiers – that one can see on the bottom, the sides and the top of the vase, are the pictures of Tigris and Euphrates, animals, among them sheep and oxen. They can be characterized as a continuous pattern and perform a function of a decorative element rather than signify the important events in the Sumerian life. Meanwhile, the top carving shows the while picture, not the scattered pieces and show the image of a goddess Inanna, who was considered one of the he ad gods of Mesopotamia (Kleiner 20). The numerous names of her – Ishtar, Astarta and the rest – make it clear that the goddess was supposed a powerful force. Altogether, this makes the vase an important exhibit in the museum collection. What were the ancient masters inspired by as they created the vase? Hardly anyone can know it. However, this could be the passion for beauty that made the ancient people create this work of art. the modern art owes much to this vase, for its shapes and the dà ©cor are wonderful examples of an artwork even to the modern artists. The last, but definitely not the least is the artifact to represent the stages of the ancient cultures development is the sculpture of the Sumerian â€Å"City-Ruler†, or the â€Å"Priest-King†. The Uruk period that took place in 4000 – 3100 BC was marked by the growing theocracy, and the king that was heading the state was reigning rather as a priest-king, coordinating his reign with the â⠂¬Å"council of elders†. There is no doubt that during this period the state achieved the success that it had never experienced before. Consequently, people took the ruler as the wisest person that could lead them out of the dark. The image of the priest-ruler that could take his flock the right way was formed in this very period. It is peculiar that in the later Sumerian period the priest-king makes certain resemblance to Buddha, â€Å"with his beard shaven and the right shoulder bare† (Waddell 112). Perhaps, the ancient Sumerians were inspired by something or someone from up above to create this holy image. The image of an ancient god was, probably, the artifact that inspired sculptors of all times to challenge gods and carve images in stone. The abovementioned altogether make the sculpture more than simply a carving in the stone. This was the idol for the ancient Sumers, and they worshipped their king like a prophet. Perhaps, one of the main questions that will be rai sed as people see the artifact exposed in all its beauty is how the objects so distanced from each other in time and space could be gathered in a single exhibition. The reasons for such unexpected choice are to be explained. Actually, the history of mankind can be compared to a chain where every single link can break the whole construction down. The elements of the chain are interdependent, and each of them is an integral part of the whole object, which makes it complete and glued together. Thus, the connection between the civilizations that have been mentioned can be easily traced. One cannot leave unnoticed such traces of the interconnection between the civilizations as the common ideas, notions and perception of the world. The world picture may vary, but the clue that it is based upon remains the same. It is not merely a coincidence that the Sumerian idol resembles Buddha so much. Although such connection is hard to prove from a scientific point of view, there is no doubt that it exists, and that the influence that each civilization has on the next one is undeniable. There is a successful theory that J. Aruz has suggested: The roots of out own civilization lie in developments that took place more than six thousand years ago in the distant lands of western Asia. The region known to ancient authors as Mesopotamia – â€Å"the land between the rivers† of the Tigris and Euphrates – was home to one of the world’s great early civilizations, thriving at the eastern end of the so-called Fertile Crescent. (7) The very idea that the modern civilization takes its roots from such distant times seems incredible. Yet it is true. Indeed, the basis that the modern culture stands on was not thought up by the people of the new wonderful world – it was taken from the ideas of the Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. Some of the nations have borrowed the elements of their culture from the Ancient Egypt. But however different the origins of the con temporary art might be, they all have the same feature about them, which is the fact that they are based on the experience of the previous civilizations. Watching all those magnificent traces left by the bygone civilizations, on might ask why these huge worlds had to go. Was it a war that destroyed them? Maybe, the natural cataclysm wiped them out from the face of the Earth? Or, perhaps, these people faced the attack of a meteorite. None is right. The thing is that the rise and fall of civilizations depend on nothing and no one else but the very people. The way they were governing their country and building up the society was the road that led them from the top of the world to the decay. There is a successful theory that J. Aruz has suggested: The roots of out own civilization lie in developments that took place more than six thousand years ago in the distant lands of western Asia. The region known to ancient authors as Mesopotamia – â€Å"the land between the rivers† of the Tigris and Euphrates – was home to one of the world’s great early civilizations, thriving at the eastern end of the so-called Fertile Crescent. (7) The very idea that the modern civilization takes its roots from such distant times seems incredible. Yet it is true. The key to the civilizations slowly coming to their decay is actually the cycles that the life of mankind is divided into. Repeating and spinning around the time line like the Earth spins around the Sun, those cycles mark the rise and fall of great civilizations. The stress leads people to agricultural society, for they are striving for their lives, which means striving for food and harvest. The abundance of resources, along with the wild resources, results in sedentism, which implies turning to a stable life with permanent home and abandoning the nomadic lifestyle. From the point of the theory of mind, which emphasizes that each human being is entitled with certain mental states, among them beliefs an d desires, intentions and thoughts, the mental progress of the ancient people meant that they were not different form the modern people. In fact, they were entitled with the same gift of mental states, that is, with the ability to have desires, emotions, beliefs and thoughts. Moreover, Diamond assures that these mental abilities are interconnected with the events that occur in the world, in a very special way. To put it more precisely, it cannot be stated whether the mental abilities trigger the events or vice versa, but there has always been the link between the two. The abovementioned abilities can actually be both the causes and the results of these events. Speaking of the cyclic development of civilizations, there is a reason to mention the Australian people that Diamond speaks about. Diamond proves that the chain leading from the top to the decay is the same fro all peoples and involves several elements that mark the stages of the mankind progress and regress. The earliest and the most intensive food production with the decent population was in the highlands of New Guinea between 4,000 and 9,000 feet. Drainage ditches from 9,000 years also have been found. By 6,000 years ago, extensive agriculture with terraces in drier areas and ditch systems to dry wet areas existed. Many are still used. (Diamond 31) This is the case of the path dependence that Diamond has described so well. He showed that the way from overproduction to the decay is inevitable and will ultimately follow any civilization, however successful its development could be. Then, the new civilization rises from the ashes of the old one to follow the footprints of the latter. The famous question that Yali asked: â€Å"Why is it that you white people developed so much cargo and brought it to New Guinea, but the black people had little Cargo of our own?† (Diamond 14) has been actually answered by Diamond. Facing the danger of over-nurture, human nature seeks the way out, and as they do, they turn to sedentism, beginning to lead a settled life. Resulting in the fertility and the population growth, the mankind development comes to a dead end as the resources are drained and the population is left with nothing. Thus, the competitive evolution emerges, for people to survive through the hard times, and the story starts from the very beginning. In spite of the fact that the cyclic development seems to leave too little space for progress and doom people to repeat the same mistakes, there is one â€Å"but† that is worth attention. One of the abilities of people is to draw conclusions from the previous experience. Owing to this ability, the new civilizations have an opportunity to achieve a better success in their development. New technologies are built on the ruins of the old ones. Also, the interaction between the civilizations and discovering the artifacts provides innovations in people’s lives. Finally, the role of language in facilitating the development cann ot be denied. The culture of speech, as well as writing, is one of the most important stages of human’s development. After all, only people have their vocal apparatus developed enough so that they can speak, in contrast to animals. The ideas that will come to people’s minds can be even more valuable and precious than all the artifacts of the exhibition altogether, for sometimes people need to see the small truths that they have always known about and have never succeeded to understand. These truths can lead to seeing the centuries-old ties that all people and all peoples have been linked to each other with since the world was created. And, maybe, this exhibition will inspire someone to leave a work of art of his or her own to the grateful descendants. Works Cited Aruz, Joan. Art of the First Cities: The Third Millennium B.C. from the  Mediterranean to the Indus. New York, NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2003. Print. Burnham, Brad. Cave of Lascaux: The Cave of Prehist oric Wall Paintings. New York, NY: Rosen Publishing Group, 2003. Print. Chandra R., Sarat. Man in India. Bajpai: A. K. Bose, 1999. Print. Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Society. New York, NY: W. W. Norton Company. 1999. Print. Donald, Merlin. Origins of the Modern World: Three Stages in the Evolution of  Culture and Cognition. Harvard: Harvard University Press, 1991. Print. Kleiner, Fred S. Gardner’s Art through the Ages: The Western Perspective. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning, 2009. Print. Muscarella, Oscar W. The Lie Became Great: the Forgery of Ancient New  Eastern Cultures. Leiden: Brill, 2000. Print. Roach, Darby. Your Three Second Window: Changing Everyday Moments  into Extraordinary Opportunities for Success. New York, NY: Wordclay, 2010. Print. Solecki, Ralph et al. The Proto-Neolithic Cemetery in Shanidar Cave. Austin, TX: Texas AM University Press, 2004. Print. Ucko, Peter J. and Dimbleby G. W. The Domestication and Exploration of  Plants and Animals. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2007. Print. Van de Mieroop, Mark. Cuneiform Texts and the Writing of the History. New York, NY: Routledge, 1999. Print. Waddel, Austin. Makers of Civilization in Race and History. Whitefish: MT: Kessinger Publishing, 2009. Print. This essay on Key Highlights of the Human Career was written and submitted by user Amanda Mcgee to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

buy custom Health Care Ethics essay

buy custom Health Care Ethics essay A life support applies to any form of therapy that can be used to sustain patients life while they are terminally ill. Many techniques may be used by clinicians achieve a life sustaining life. These may include mechanical ventilation, lung bypass, feeding tube among others. These techniques are mostly applied in Emergence Departments, Intensive care units as well as operating rooms Morrison (2009,p.21). Life support is used to sustain life while the patient is being treated for prognosis. The clinical goal of the process depends with specified patient situation Morrison (2009, p.20). Caring for people towards the end of their lives is one of the challenging and rewarding aspects in primary health care. This is because the proximity to death transforms the medical encounter. This calls upon both clinical and medical competence of the medical provider Morrison (2009, p.24). In this case, the patient had signed advanced health care directive form, only the agent of the patient can request for life support establishment. Otherwise the medical officer attending the patient should not establish life support.Besides, healthcare providers are required to address many potential ethical issues in the end of life support decision making process(2009,p.34). The advance health care directives were therefore meant to cater for the patient healthcare when the patient lacks competence in decision making capacity. The request by family members for life support to be established could not hold water. According to Morrison (2009) family members who are making choices for their loved ones "often have a sizable stake in how treatment decisions go, and their interests influence the decisions making, the orthodoxy regards the process as morally contaminated" (p. 203). In other words, family members may tend to make decisions about their loved ones life saving measures based on how it would benefit them and not based on the benefit of the patient. One issue that a health care provider would want to make sure of is that the person in charge of a patient's health care decisions is a competent and knowledgeable person. Another issue that a health care provider would want to address is making sure that the person who is making decisions on behalf of the patient has the priority to do so. For example, Morrison (2009, p.207) states that when it comes to making decisions on behalf of a patient there is a "descending order of priority: spouse, adult children, parents, siblings, and so on" (p. 208). A health care provider must make sure that the person determining the health care treatment for the patient indeed has the authority to do so, and if that person is not present, the health care provider must do everything in their power to reach this "priority" family member. If the patient had signed an advanced directive then the health care facility would have to honor the wishes of the patient and not those of the family. Morrison (209, p.224) lists seven "safeguards and guidelines for a policy on assisted death and a life support program. These guidelines must be met in order for patients in Oregon to be allowed to process with ending their life. It is evident that if a person is diagnosed with an incurable disease that people may be able to manipulate that individual into taking his or her own life Morrison (2009, p.225). For example, a person who has been diagnosed with an incurable disease who is competent, and who has given up on the will to live with the disease could be convinced by family members, physicians, or friends to consider physician-assisted suicide. The guidelines only focus on the patient and the physician; they do not involve interviewing family members to make sure that the idea of pursuing physician-assisted suicide was the sole idea of the patient and not the coercion of family members Morrison(2009,p.228). In addition, the guidelines say nothing about the patient's family even being aware of their family members deciding to embark on. Buy custom Health Care Ethics essay

Sunday, March 1, 2020

King Richard I, the Lionheart, of England, Crusader

King Richard I, the Lionheart, of England, Crusader King Richard I, the Lionheart (September 8, 1157–April 6, 1199) was an English king and one of the leaders of the Third Crusade. He is known both for his military skill and the neglect of his realm because of his long absence. Fast Facts: Richard I the Lionheart Known For:  Helped lead the Third Crusade, monarch of England from 1189 to 1199Also Known As:  Richard CÅ“ur de Lion, Richard the Lionheart, Richard I of EnglandBorn:  September 8, 1157 in Oxford, EnglandParents: King Henry II of England and Eleanor of AquitaineDied:  April 6, 1199 in Chà ¢lus,  Duchy of AquitaineSpouse: Berengaria of NavarreNotable Quote: We, however, place the love of God and His honour above our own and above the acquisition of many regions. Early Life Born September 8, 1157, Richard the Lionheart was the third legitimate son of King Henry II of England. Often believed to have been the favorite son of his mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Richard had three older siblings, William (who died in infancy), Henry, and Matilda, as well as four younger: Geoffrey, Lenora, Joan, and John. As with many English rulers of the Plantagenet line, Richard was essentially French and his focus tended to lean toward the familys lands in France rather than England. Following the separation of his parents in 1167, Richard was invested duchy of Aquitaine. Revolt Against Henry II Well-educated and of dashing appearance, Richard quickly demonstrated skill in military matters and worked to enforce his fathers rule in the French lands. In 1174, encouraged by their mother, Richard and his brothers Henry (the Young King) and Geoffrey (Duke of Brittany) rebelled against their fathers rule. Responding quickly, Henry II was able to crush this revolt and captured Eleanor. With his brothers defeated, Richard submitted to his fathers will and asked for forgiveness. His greater ambitions checked, Richard turned his focus to maintaining his rule over Aquitaine and controlling his nobles. Shifting Alliances Ruling with an iron fist, Richard was forced to put down major revolts in 1179 and 1181–1182. During this time, tensions again rose between Richard and his father when the latter demanded that his son pay homage to his older brother Henry. Refusing, Richard was soon attacked by Henry the Young King and Geoffrey in 1183. Confronted by this invasion and a revolt of his own barons, Richard was able to skillfully turn back these attacks. Following the death of Henry the Young King in June 1183, Richards father King Henry II ordered John to continue the campaign. Seeking aid, Richard formed an alliance with King Philip II of France in 1187. In return for Philips assistance, Richard ceded his rights to Normandy and Anjou. That summer, upon hearing of the Christian defeat at the Battle of Hattin, Richard took the cross at Tours with other members of the French nobility. Victory and Becoming King In 1189, Richard and Philips forces united against Henry II and won a victory at Ballans in July. Meeting with Richard, Henry agreed to name him as his heir. Two days later, Henry died and Richard ascended to the English throne. He was crowned at Westminster Abbey in September 1189. Following his coronation, a rash of anti-Semitic violence swept through the country as Jews had been barred from the ceremony. Punishing the perpetrators, Richard immediately began making plans to go on a crusade to the Holy Land. Going to extremes to raise money for the army, he finally was able to assemble a force of around 8,000 men. After making preparations for the protection of his realm in his absence, Richard and his army departed in the summer of 1190. Dubbed the Third Crusade, Richard planned to campaign in conjunction with Philip II and Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa of the Holy Roman Empire. The Crusade Begins Rendezvousing with Philip at Sicily, Richard aided in settling a succession dispute on the island, which involved his sister Joan, and conducted a brief campaign against Messina. During this time, he proclaimed his nephew, Arthur of Brittany, to be his heir, leading his brother John to start planning a revolt at home. Moving on, Richard landed in Cyprus to rescue his mother and his future bride, Berengaria of Navarre. Defeating the islands despot, Isaac Komnenos, he completed his conquest and married Berengaria on May 12, 1191. Pressing on, he landed in the Holy Land at Acre on June 8. Shifting Alliances in the Holy Land Arriving in the Holy Land, Richard gave his support to Guy of Lusignan, who was fighting a challenge from Conrad of Montferrat for the kingship of Jerusalem. Conrad was in turn backed by Philip and Duke Leopold V of Austria. Putting aside their differences, the Crusaders captured Acre that summer. After taking the city, problems again arose as Richard contested Leopolds place in the Crusade. Though not a king, Leopold had ascended to the command of Imperial forces in the Holy Land after the death of Frederick Barbarossa in 1190. After Richards men pulled down Leopolds banner at Acre, the Austrian departed and returned home in anger. Soon after, Richard and Philip began arguing in regard to the status of Cyprus and the kingship of Jerusalem. In poor health, Philip elected to return to France leaving Richard without allies to face Saladins Muslim forces. Battling Saladin Pushing south, Richard defeated Saladin at Arsuf on September 7, 1191, and then attempted to open peace negotiations. Initially rebuffed by Saladin, Richard spent the early months of 1192 refortifying Ascalon. As the year wore on, both Richard and Saladins positions began to weaken and the two men entered into negotiations. Knowing that he could not hold Jerusalem if he took it and that John and Philip were plotting against him at home, Richard agreed to raze walls at Ascalon in exchange for a three-year truce and Christian access to Jerusalem. After the agreement was signed on September 2, 1192, Richard departed for home. Returning to England Shipwrecked en route to England, Richard was forced to travel overland and was captured by Leopold in December. Imprisoned first in Dà ¼rnstein and then at Trifels Castle in the Palatinate, Richard was largely kept in comfortable captivity. For his release, the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI demanded 150,000 marks. While Eleanor of Aquitaine worked to raise the money for his release, John and Philip offered Henry VI 80,000 marks to hold Richard until at least Michaelmas 1194. Refusing, the emperor accepted the ransom and released Richard on February 4, 1194. Returning to England, Richard quickly forced John to submit to his will but did name his brother as his heir, supplanting his nephew Arthur. With the situation in England in hand, Richard returned to France to deal with Philip. Death Constructing an alliance against his former friend, Richard won several victories over the French during the next five years. In March 1199, Richard laid siege to the small castle of Chalus-Chabrol. On the night of March 25, while walking along the siege lines, he was struck in the left shoulder by an arrow. Unable to remove it himself, he summoned a surgeon who took out the arrow but severely worsened the wound in the process. Shortly thereafter, gangrene set in and the king died in his mothers arms on April 6, 1199. Legacy Richard has a mixed legacy, as some historians point to his military skill and the daring necessary to go on crusade, while others emphasize his cruelty and neglect for his realm. Though king for 10 years, he only spent around six months in England and the remainder of his reign in his French lands or abroad. He was succeeded by his brother John. Sources Dafoe, Stephen. â€Å"King Richard I – The Lionheart.†Ã‚  TemplarHistory.com.â€Å"History - King Richard I.†Ã‚  BBC, BBC.â€Å"Medieval Sourcebook: Itinerarium Peregrinorum Et Gesta Regis Ricardi: Richard the Lionheart Makes Peace with Saladin, 1192.†Ã‚  Internet History Sourcebooks Project.